Two-Hits to Catastrophic

Two-Hits to Catastrophic

By Janice Staber, MD In 1971, Alfred Knudson, MD, PhD, originally formulated the two-hit hypothesis, which states that most genes require two mutations for a change to occur; this aided the medical community’s understanding of how tumors form. We now know that the...
A Disruptive Innovation?

A Disruptive Innovation?

By Binod Dhakal, MD, MS “I just want to be a normal person, doctor,” Greg said, “but that’s not an option.” Greg, 58 years old, underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) three years ago using cells from his...
Erythroferrone: A Bone to Pick with Thalassemia

Erythroferrone: A Bone to Pick with Thalassemia

By Alexander Glaros, MD, and Ahmar U. Zaidi, MD If the results of the past five years are any indication, the era of gene therapy is truly at hand, and nearly 100 years after Thomas Cooley first described the skeletal and morphological changes of the disease in a pair...
Aging: Attack of the Clones

Aging: Attack of the Clones

By Binod Dhakal, MD, MS “Aging is not lost youth but a new stage of opportunity and strength.” — Betty Friedan (1921-2006) Blood cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Adult HSCs are maintained in a quiescent state, a state necessary for preserving the...